audio clip

 Albert "Bruce" Washington - Advice (clip)

Albert “Bruce” Washington (ABW): Well they need to make sure that they get their money for their labor. That’s what they need to do. Because the government has got it set up where you have to pay so many taxes and general liability and insurance and stuff like that, you know. So they just need to…

 Albert "Bruce" Washington - Background information (clip)

Yvonne Cleveland: What made you interested in becoming a brick mason? Albert Washington: Well, I took it in high school at Chatham County, Horton High School, and they used to interview us and say who’s going to college? If you weren't going to college, they would teach you a trade—carpeting, brick…

 Albert "Bruce" Washington - Brick has been good to me (clip)

 Albert "Bruce" Washington - Changes (clip)

Albert “Bruce” Washington (ABW): Well, it is now, but a lot of things now is that, when I first started, it was all Black [people] doing it because it was hard, hard work, and then when the white [people] found out how much money was in it, they kind of took it over. I remember when I started, if I…

 Albert "Bruce" Washington - Family history (clip)

Yvonne Cleveland (YC): How far back does your family go in this brickmasonry? Albert “Bruce” Washington (ABW): I think it was just my uncle. YC: Just your uncle? ABW: Yeah, uh huh. And I forget who he worked for around here in Chapel Hill, but I can just remember him being around the house, filling…

 Albert "Bruce" Washington - Gateway (clip)

Albert “Bruce” Washington (ABW): I would like to see something like that, you know, I would like to see the picture of George Tate and Donny Brooks, and Charles Brooks, and people like that. And David Rankins, I’d like to see, because they were the ones who started us and taught us what to…

 Albert "Bruce" Washington - Getting started (clip)

Albert “Bruce” Washington (ABW): Actually, I took it in high school, in Chatham County, Horton High School. And they used to interview us and say, “Who’s going to college?” If you weren’t going to college, they would teach you a trade – carpentry, brick masonry, all that, and it just went on from…

 Albert "Bruce" Washington - On a gateway (clip)

 Albert "Bruce" Washington - On his final thoughts (clip)

 Albert "Bruce" Washington - On legacy and land (clip)

 Albert "Bruce" Washington - On teaching the trade (clip)

Yvonne Cleveland: What is one thing you would want to share with people today who might be interested in this kind of work? Another question is: do you think this kind of work is still in existence? Albert Washington: Well, it is now, but when I first started, it was all Black [people] doing it…

 Albert "Bruce" Washington - One million bricks (clip)

 Albert Washington - On games at Hargraves Community Center (clip)

 Albert Williams - I had to be interviewed (clip)

In this short clip, Rev. Williams tells the story of his 1968 interview for a position with the Chapel Hill Fire Department. Albert Williams: I had to be interviewed by a panel of five personnel. They were five chiefs, and five officers from various departments around the state. One of the questions…

 Albert Williams - On building a "tight neighborhood" (clip)

Albert Williams: Neighbors looked out – this was a tight neighborhood– right down that cross from Hargraves Center. Rob Stephens: Yeah Albert Williams: On Roberson's street. And you know, it was tight. We grew up – I grew up – being introduced to white and Black. It wasn’t no big thing even though…

 Albert Williams - On Ku Klux Klan (clip)

 Albert Williams - On No Black People in Cary (clip)

Rob Stephens: --people? Albert Williams: Yeah, we met them. RS: Is that the family that said they moved out here because there weren't any Black people in Cary? AW: Yeah. Eloise Williams: It’s not a family, it’s just a lady. AW: A lady. She had a grandson, her grandson came down. EW: He was…

 Albert Williams – Don't Wanna Live By No N***** Either

 Albert Williams – He Could Have Called Angels, But He Didn't (clip)

Albert Williams: You know, there's failure in us, but like everybody else, we’ll strive, and even though we should have a higher standard [pause], you know, and really strive to live according to that standard. Rob Stephens: Yes. Albert Williams: But many of us fail in so many ways. We are human,…

 Albert Williams – Rebbish Carrboro (clip)

Albert Williams: Things were segregated. That’s why I’m saying the people in Carrboro don’t know what was going on. When you cross that railroad track at night, that was the white side of town. You didn’t have no business in Carrboro. Rob Stephens: I’ve heard that. AW: Unless you lived out there.…

 Albert Williams – We Need the Human Touch (clip)

Rob Stephens: What’d you think would be most needed in, for the neighborhood – we talked about this a lot, especially in the sessions with you and Brother Revels and Pastor Harrison – but, for the community around Saint Joseph, to really, you know in the midst of all the changes that are going on,…

 Andrea Harris - On her aunt's story (clip)

 Andrés Morales-Castillo – El Papel de la Comida en la Comunidad (clip)

 Andrés Morales-Castillo – Un Relato de un Vecino (clip)

 Anita Spring Council - On Bill's Bar-b-que (clip)

 Anita Spring Council - On Bill's Bar-b-que (clip)

 Anita Spring Council and Annette "Neecy" Council - On family reunions (clip)

 Anita Spring Council and Annette "Neecy" Council - On gardens (clip)

 Anita Spring Council and Annette "Neecy" Council - On hiring prison employees (clip)

 Arminta Foushee - On Bible School (clip)

 Arminta Foushee - On Black Churches (clip)

 Arminta Foushee - On Christmas Bags (clip)

 Arminta Foushee - On Tar Heel Taxi #1 (clip)

 Ashanti McClain - On her work with RENA (clip)

 Ashanti McClain - On the impact of RENA volunteers picking up trash (clip)

 Betty Geer - On gardens (clip)

 Betty Geer - On Greenbridge (clip)

 Betty Geer - On the neighborhood (clip)

 Betty King - on changing the name of Orange County Training School (clip)

RG: When did they change the name Orange County Training School to Northside and Lincoln. BK: When they built Lincoln. No. They changed Orange County Training School, I think, I'm not really sure, I think about 1949, 48-49, somewhere along there. And that was because the parents - we had some…

 Betty King - on her first encounters with segregation as she began schooling (clip)

BK: Yeah. And see then, I knew what, got my first taste of segregation mainly was when I started school. RG: Which school? BK: It was Orange County Training School at that time. And that's over there where Northside is now. Same building. OK. The white school was where the Town Hall of Carrboro is.…

 Betty King - on opportunities after graduating high school (clip)

RG: Do you have any idea when you graduated, how many went on to get a college degree or started college? BK: Most of them that finished school went on. RG: Went on to college? BK: To college, yes. And a lot of them left Chapel Hill because there was no future for them in Chapel Hill. The only thing…

 Betty King - on teachers as role models at Orange County Training School (clip)

RG: Do you still remember your teachers from Orange County Training School? BK: I remember, not back too far. I just went to one of them's funeral. She passed. Ruth Hope, I went to her funeral. One teacher, Miss Eziel ? Smith. She was my teacher. There's another one that's still alive and lives in…

 Braxton Foushee - Anyone can play a role (clip)

Braxton Foushee: There were a lot of people who couldn’t do certain things in the movement so we had them do other things to be involved in the movement. There were a lot of people who couldn’t [] right back, and we knew it, and we asked them, you know, to be real truthful with us. And they were,…

 Braxton Foushee - On his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement (clip)

 Braxton Foushee - On progress after the Civil Rights Movement (clip)

 Burnice Hackney - on his educational experience post-integration (clip)

BG: Did you feel that you were treated the same as a student as the white teachers as the whites were treated when you went Chapel Hill High in '66? BH: I don't have a recollection of being treated differently, it's just maybe a sense of identifying with their teacher or the teacher identifying with…

 Burnice Hackney - on his football coach's influence and impact (clip)

BG: Were there any other things about the football team that you remember that you want to share?  BH: Mainly Coach Peerman the team-. Actually Coach Bradshaw was there and went on to great success. He's also a member of the Hall of Fame. He was there before I got there and before Coach Peerman, but…

 Burnice Hackney - recounts his experience during the integration of Chapel Hill high school (clip)

BG: You had mentioned that you learned either late in the school term or during the summer that you were going to go to Chapel Hill High and you had some feelings about that that were just expressed to me while we were changing the tapes. BH: Right. My personal preference of course being a senior…

 Carol Brooks and Keith Edwards - On Civil Rights protests (clip)

Keith Edwards: Yeah, 1966 when they fully integrated. Cause I went there in the seventh grade, and I was just eleven years old. We went on Franklin Street. Carol Brooks: See that was back in ’64, in ’63…That’s when we were cheerleaders for Lincoln High School. Patricia Atwater, Evelyn Walker, and…

 Carol Brooks and Keith Edwards - On the mood at Civil Rights marches (clip)

Ben Barge: Do you remember what it felt like, being in the march? Carol Brooks: Well like I told you, it felt… wonderful, it was exciting, new, you know, trying to help integrate, want to be in the front []. Because I remember the bus station, you know, they had the colored, the white, you weren’t…

 Carolyn Briggs - On being self-supported (clip)

 Carolyn Briggs - On funding for the A.D. Clark Pool (clip)

 Carolyn Briggs - On the construction of the A.D. Clark Pool and lifeguards (clip)

Carolyn Briggs describes writing essays in school to convince people to build the pool. She also describes being saved from drowning in the pool and remembers several of the lifeguards at A.D. Clark Pool.

 Carolyn Briggs - On walking to Northside Elementary (clip)

 Carolyn Briggs - On when integration started (clip)

 Carolyn Briggs - Sit Ins (clip)

In this clip, Ms. Carolyn talks about a sit-in at Longmeadow Dairy on Franklin Street in downtown Chapel Hill.

 Charlene Smith - on her experience at school while her father was principal (clip)

RG: Was it difficult for you at the high school, with your dad as principal? CS: Probably, yeah, (laughter) Eyes always on me. RG: Eyes always on you. CS: Yeah. RG: Did you think you got special treatment, or tougher treatment, or the same as everybody else? CS: I didn't get special treatment. And I…

 Charlene Smith - on her parents monumental impact on education in Chapel Hill (clip)

RG: What is it that, what are the contributions that your mother made that allowed a school to be named after her? CS: Just the longevity of teaching in this community as long she did. RG: 1932 till — CS: What was it, I know they had taught over 60-some years in this particular community together,…

 Charlene Smith - on her teachers providing mental health support (clip)

RG: Well, let's graduate from Northside - not Orange County Training School - and go on to Lincoln. I may repeat some of the same kinds of questions, but I want to understand what you remember about the characteristics of the teachers at Lincoln. CS: The characteristics that I remember of - the…

 Charlene Smith - On operettas at Northside (clip)

 Charlene Smith - reflects on her teachers at Northside elementary (clip)

RG: Are there any other memories of your childhood that stand out in your mind? CS: No, I think you just kind of accept things as they are, and you don't question them or really see the value until you move on to another stage. Then you can see the importance of what you did have, and what we had,…

 Chelsea Alston - On the neighborhood and community changing (clip)

Alexander Stephens: How have you seen it [the community] change? Chelsea Alston: I’ve seen it change from—Well, like I was saying a lot of my friends live in close proximity of each other. It’s changing to where that it’ll be more of my friends living in the neighborhood than it is now. A lot of my…

 Civil Rights Story Circle - On Carrboro (clip)

 Civil Rights Story Circle - On treatment in jail (clip)

 Clarke Egerton - on being a music educator and leading a band (clip)

RG: So you graduated North Carolina College in - CE: '55. '56. RG: '55. '56. And then you were at John R. Hawkins High School? CE: Warrenton - it was John R. Hawkins High School, it was called John R. Hawkins, in Warrenton, North Carolina. And that year was my first year doing band. So I had the…

 Clarke Egerton - on his busy schedule as an educator and active community member (clip)

CE: And there again, even with the band that I was working with, again I had the safety patrol, and I had a homeroom, and then they had the Maydays, which you are responsible for. And I was also the junior class advisor, which means that I had to be responsible for getting the junior prom together.…

 Clarke Egerton - on the importance of music education (clip)

RG: Did you feel that the students gained more than a musical education from being in the band? CE: Oh certainly. There are so many lessons to be learned being in the band situation, because you work together as a family, and so many of those students that I taught actually looked to me as their…

 Clarke Egerton - on the success of the Lincoln High School marching band (clip)

RG: You know I hear so many people comment to me about how wonderful the marching band was. And you've touched a little bit on moving the instruments, maybe high stepping. Can you describe a little bit more what a parade was like for the Lincoln High School marching band? CE: Oh that was the top…

 Clarke Egerton - on the work environment and working at Lincoln High (clip)

RG: Can you tell me about the teachers, your impression about the teachers at Lincoln High School? And - I' II just leave it at that. CE: Oh, I think they had a good set of quality teachers. I was impressed with the teaching staff that was there. I don't want to call any names, but I know you've…

 Clayton Weaver - On Northside's teaching community (clip)

 Clayton Weaver - On operettas and community support for the arts (clip)

 Clayton Weaver - On the Black business community in the 1950s (clip)

 Clementine Self - On her contributions to the Civil Rights Movement (clip)

 Clementine Self - On integration's impact on her attending Chapel Hill High School (clip)

 Cleo Caldwell - On cancer (clip)

 Cleo Caldwell - On her mother (clip)

 Clyde Perry - On a Northside School day (clip)

 Clyde Perry - On book access and public library segregation (clip)

 Clyde Perry - On Bynum Weaver's Store (clip)

 Clyde Perry - On gathering at the Rockpile at Northside (clip)

 Clyde Perry - On home and chores in Northside Community (clip)

 Clyde Perry - On Northside memories and the gymatorium (clip)

 Clyde Perry - On Northside teachers visiting the home (clip)

 Collene Riggsbee Rogers - Brick work (clip)

Collene Riggsbee Rogers: My brother did the brick work and my cousin. I guess they all started that in high school. The football players had to work in construction in the summer because they didn’t have exercise equipment, so they felt that they were building up their muscles and stuff doing that.…

 Collene Riggsbee Rogers - Building houses (clip)

Collene Riggsbee Rogers: Well, you know, it’s our house that’s on Merrit Mill Road that we had also and the building, my grandfather, his father, is the one that gave him the building but it was like, you know old times they had wooden buildings and stuff, I guess it was starting to deteriorate he…

 Collene Riggsbee Rogers - Day or night (clip)

Collene Riggsbee Rogers: If they called him and they needed it, he’d go. At his funeral, Reverend Manley said, “How many people had to call him at one o’clock in the morning--two o’clock in the morning--and he came?” And I think every hand in the church went up. And see we lived that way, and I…

 Collene Riggsbee Rogers - Helping father (clip)

Collene Riggsbee Rogers: If they didn’t go then it was me, you know, and I just didn't want to do it so I said let me find me something to do, I have to get into some stuff. I got into 4-H, I got into Girl Scouts, I got into everything that was going to take me away. And at school, I got into the…

 Collene Riggsbee Rogers - Home improvement (clip)

Collene Riggsbee Rogers: Yes, I have to handle a whole lot. I’m out there by myself. I have to handle a whole lot, you know. I fix plumbing leaks for the toilet. I have a whole house filter so I change that. And I paint. I do all of that stuff. But I did it when I was in New York. I did it in my…

 Collene Riggsbee Rogers - Independence (clip)

Collene Rogers: Well, the only thing he did, I think the books he got, was like twelve of them. He was still working, and he was still going out and working during the day. And after dinner at night is when he would go out in his car and read the books. And so, he did that I guess, for about a, had…

 Collene Riggsbee Rogers - Losing sight (clip)

Collene Riggsbee Rogers: Yeah, he lost his sight. I think after he hit the judge, he was driving down Franklin Street and I guess the light changed and he moved and he didn’t see the judge, and he hit the judge. After that, they didn’t renew his license, I don’t think, because he had glaucoma. But…

 Collene Riggsbee Rogers - On Manley Estates (clip)

 Collene Riggsbee Rogers - Other trades (clip)

Collene Riggsbee Rogers: It was his passion. He did everything. He was a licensed electrician and he was a carpenter. Upstairs in the building is where he had his workshop where he made his cabinets and stuff. And I guess he did whatever needed to be done because he was actually doing all of the…

 Collene Riggsbee Rogers - Plumber (clip)

Collene Rogers: Well, I never considered, I always considered my father to be a plumber, you know? That was his passion. But he did build all three of the houses that he owned, he built, and the building. And for, he worked with other builders, Mr. Charles Brooks and Tate, and he would do the…

 Collene Riggsbee Rogers - Resistance to plumbing (clip)

Collene Riggsbee Rogers: But nobody wanted to work with Daddy because Daddy did plumbing. [Laughter] But it was so funny because Bobby’s friends were always at our house. If Bobby was working and wasn’t there they always stopped by because they always liked sitting down and talking to Mama. So if…

 Collene Riggsbee Rogers - What people should know (clip)

Collene Riggsbee Rogers: That they were dependable. That when you call them, they did show up. And they learned, but they learned from others you know and that’s the only thing that I didn’t understand when I did move back. Music was something that we always did. We were always competing, all of it,…

 Collene Riggsbee Rogers - Why he liked the work (clip)

Kathryn Wall: Your said plumbing was his passion. Do you know why he liked that better than the other….? Collene Riggsbee Rogers: I really don’t. I don’t. Because I didn’t. I don’t. I don’t know. I guess maybe it was just something that he knew that people needed more and that’s what he focused on…

 Cynthia Edwards-Paschall - On hanging out at Hargraves (clip)

She remembers Hargraves as her “second home” and a safe place to be. She describes staying at the pool all day until her fingers and toes were like raisins.

 Danina Henley - On Community Gets People Through (clip)

 Danina Henley on Meeting Needs and Addressing Problems (clip)

 David Caldwell, Jr. - Advice to the current generation (clip)

 David Caldwell, Jr. - Going to town (clip)

David Caldwell, Jr.: Because when we moved out here, I was in the third grade, so it was the [19]60s, and there was not a lot of houses. There was not a lot of things going on that you could do, so we spent a lot of our time in the woods. There were maybe thirteen kids out here at the time on the…

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On activism (clip)

David Caldwell, Jr. (DC): We brought up the fact that they were not keeping the promises that were made. We would go to meetings to voice our protest and, I mean, we were met with disgust and disdain and, “Why are you guys back here again?” [Sound of train passing, whistle blowing] We were bringing…

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On Greene Tract Development (clip)

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On growing up in the Rogers community (clip)

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On growing up on Rogers Road (clip)

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On landfill employees (clip)

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On methane and the landfill (clip)

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On race as a factor in environmental justice (clip)

Darius Scott (DS): By thinking about the environmental issues that have been faced by Rogers Road, how do you think race factors into those? David Caldwell, Jr.: Well, [laughs] you are in the South! I mean, that’s… that is the South. That’s what, to me, what the South was based on, was race. That’s…

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On Recruiting Experts' Help to Prove the Existence of the Landfill Problems (clip)

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On RENA (clip)

David Caldwell, Jr. (DC): Right now I m the project director and the community organizer. And what I do is special projects that come up, I pretty much organize and get them going and get the community organized into participating. We do a Backpack Back-to-School Bash, where we give our goal is…

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On Rogers Road's Roots and History (clip)

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On successful strategies sourcing local support to solve community issues (clip)

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On the book on the Rogers-Eubanks Landfill (clip)

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On the Civil Rights Movement and his family

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On the fifty-year landfill struggle (clip)

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On the Fight for Clean Water (clip)

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On the history of the Rogers Road community (clip)

David Caldwell, Jr. (DC): For Rogers Road we were looking at a mitigation committee that we are working with. One thing they did agree is that, yeah, we’ve got sidewalks and streetlights, but its twenty years down the road. So do you really feel like you’ve done what you were supposed to do, even in…

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On the initial promises about the landfill (clip)

Darius Scott (DS): Okay. And you mentioned the landfill a bit a moment ago. Could you describe the moments leading up to the landfill coming to Rogers Road? David Caldwell, Jr. (DC): Oh, gosh! We had, basically, it was, like I said, we were a little country neighborhood. They came into my father s…

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On the landfill problems (clip)

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On the landfill's environmental impact (clip)

David Caldwell, Jr. (DC): This was a dirt road, red, dusty, clay. All of this was cornfields, like I said, and a few houses, things, mostly a farming community. And when they did it, the road was so bad that it was tearing up the city s trucks, so they had to pave it sooner than they wanted to. So,…

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On the Rogers Road neighborhood (clip)

Darius Scott (DS): What brought you guys from Merritt Mill to Rogers Road when you were in the third grade? David Caldwell, Jr. (DC): Oh! Like most of the people out here, we had the opportunity to buy a home. DS: Um-hmm. DC: There was only about thirteen houses out here when we moved out here, and…

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On visitors from China touring the Rogers-Eubanks community (clip)

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On who suffers because of landfills (clip)

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On Youth Involvement in the Rogers-Eubanks Landfill Removal (clip)

 David Mason, Jr. - On Hargraves Community Center (clip)

 David Mason, Jr. - On planning Chapel Hill's first sit-in (clip)

David Mason: And, ‘til when I guess it must have been February or March of 1960. 1960. Shortly after the demonstrations in the city, as I shall say, in Greensboro. I was the president of my class, and then there was another fellow that was a year older than me. His sister goes to our church now.…

 David Mason, Jr. - On swimming holes (clip)

 David Mason, Jr. - On the sit-in at Colonial Drugstore (clip)

David Mason, Jr.: And I remember when we went in, we sat down and Big John said, “Mason, you, you know y’all are not supposed to be sitting down here.” And I said, “Why? We just want a soda.” And he said, “well y’all can get your sodas, and y’all have to leave.” And Harold said “No, we aren’t going…

 David Mason, Jr. - On what happened after the sit-in (clip)

Matthew Miller: Were you arrested, were you taken away? Or did they just take your name? David Mason, Jr.: They just took our names, okay. But he said, if you— MM: If you do— DM: Well, we weren’t arrested at that time, I should say. MM: Okay. DM: What happened—I didn’t tell my father, and, the next…

 David Mason, Jr. - On why the sit-in happened (clip)

Matthew Miller: So you were allowed to go there, but you weren’t allowed to sit at the counter? David Mason, Jr.: Absolutely! Absolutely. MM: Okay. DM: Yeah, yeah. That’s exactly right. So that was the most logical place. MM: Yeah. DM: ‘Cause that’s where we all put our money, and, so that was…

 Deloris Bynum - On work with Ipas (clip)

 Deshawn Alston - Old School (clip)

 Dianne Peerman Pledger - On working at the A.D. Clark Pool (clip)

Ms. Pledger describes her friend Susan Perry working as a lifeguard at the pool while she worked the front desk for several summers in the 1970s. She also discusses learning how to swim.

 Dianne Pledger - On discipline (clip)

 Dianne Pledger - On football games (clip)

 Dianne Pledger - On friends (clip)

 Dianne Pledger - On her mom (clip)

 Dianne Pledger - On love (clip)

 Dianne Pledger - On playing (clip)

 Dianne Pledger - On teacher's pay (clip)

 Dianne Pledger - On teaching (clip)

 Dianne Pledger - On the luck of the draw (clip)

 Dianne Pledger - Watch over (clip)

 Dianne Pledger. - On achievement (clip)

 Dolores Clark - On her great-grandfather (clip)

Dolores Clark: Tony was separated from his mother. His mother was taken from him to Hillsborough and put on the block in Hillsborough when he was only 7 years old. And after that, he stayed on the plantation until he was about 16 or 17, and left the plantation, did some work around. He learned how…

 Dolores Clark - On the Barbees (clip)

Dolores Clark: So my great grandmother and great grandfather had two children, Sally and William. Okay, the two children. And that’s when they added on to their house after they built the log house, because they started a family. Sally married a Barbee. She married Fred Barbee and he was down there…

 Dolores Clark - On the Klan (clip)

 Dolores Clark - On the Masons (clip)

Dolores Clark: My grandfather was very active, like I said, in the masons. He was a mason, very active. He has built so many things around in the community, the First Baptist Church in Carrboro, he was a part of building that. And I understand from recent information that he and one of my uncles…

 Dolores Clark - Strayhorn family (clip)

Dolores Clark: Well I’ll start first with the Strayhorn family because I was raised in the home that my great grandparents Toney and Nellie Strayhorn built in 1879. And I was born in 1933 and lived in that home for about maybe 20 years or 18 years, I would say, until I left and went to college and…

 Donny "Hollywood" Riggsbee - On swimming and friends (clip)

 Doris Bynum - On swimming in the creek (clip)

 Doris Wilson - Intro (clip)

 Doris Wilson - On accreditation (clip)

 Doris Wilson - On administrators (clip)

 Doris Wilson - On an interesting life (clip)

 Doris Wilson - On apartments (clip)

 Doris Wilson - On demographics (clip)

 Doris Wilson - On family (clip)

 Doris Wilson - On the rock wall (clip)

 Doug Clark - Holiday Memories (clip)

Doug Clark describes attending a holiday party at a UNC fraternity where he got the idea to start his band, which eventually became Doug Clark and the Hot Nuts.To hear more from Doug Clark, listen to his full oral history "Doug Clark, Sr. - On growing up in Chapel Hill and high school."

 Doug Clark - On the Hollywood Theater (clip)

 Dr. Whitney Robinson - On navigating healthcare (clip)

 Dr. Whitney Robinson - On neighborhood changes (clip)

 Dr. Whitney Robinson - On women's health (clip)

 Edna Lyde - On housekeeping work (clip)

 Edwin Caldwell, Jr. - On swimming (clip)

 Equashia Mumeen – Family as Community (clip)

 Equashia Mumeen – Incredible Act of Giving (clip)

 Equashia Mumeen – Introduction (clip)

 Equashia Mumeen – Loving People Riding the Bus (clip)

 Esphur and Harold Foster - Children Create Community (clip)

Esphur Foster (EF): Cause children always… Hudson Vaughan (HV): Create EF: Yeah they do, yeah they do. Chante, had met a little girl and her father was wonderful. He taught science at Chapel Hill High. He was the most incredible man and they just fell in love with each other. So then, she wanted,…

 Esphur and Harold Foster - Nothing Without Our History (clip)

Esphur Foster (EF): If you don’t know where you came from, you won’t know where you’re going. Harold Foster (HF): Mhm-mm [in agreement] EF: You gotta know where you came from. Hudson Vaughan (HV): And Mrs. Jackson’s quote is “If you don’t know --Without the past, we have no future.” EF: Future!…

 Esphur and Harold Foster - On supporting Harold Foster during the civil rights movement (clip)

Hudson Vaughn (HV): Were you involved also in some of the marches, like Harold? Esphur Foster (EF): No he was at the forefront. I did march, in one or two of them. We had to take an oath, not to be nonviolent and mother always taught us to support each other if we were doing right. So we thought…

 Esphur and Harold Foster - On their family home (clip)

Harold Vaughan: So how long have y’all lived in this, this neighborhood? Esphur Foster: Seventy years. HV: Your whole life. EF: Yeah. We have, we had a cookout one night and we brought all of our, a lot of old pictures out and were showing them to everyone at the cookout. We got and left them out,…

 Esphur and Harold Foster - On their mother, Hattie Mae Foster's passing, and the community response to her death (clip)

Esphur Foster (EF): So when we took her down to the hospital that next morning Charley sent word over to the dental school and she said, tell everybody if they want to see Hattie for the last time to say goodbye, to come over. So when we got ready to leave Hudson, the whole Emergency Room dock was…

 Esphur and Harold Foster - On What Makes a Neighborhood a Real Community (clip)

Hudson Vaughan: All these stories, I feel like, speak to really what makes a neighborhood. But could you talk a little bit about what you feel like have been the most valuable aspects of the neighborhood you’ve grown up in? And if maybe it has changed then what that change has been like. Esphur…

 Esphur Foster - On May Day (clip)

 Esphur Foster - On swimming holes (clip)

Esphur Foster: And then the boys used to go to the trestle and jump in that sewage water and learn to swim because there was no way- you know, for us- to learn to swim. Hudson Vaughan: Mhm EP: So, they- the girls didn’t play that- so they would go over there and swim in the trestle.

 Eugene C. Hines, Jr. - On swimming and lifeguards (clip)

Mr. Hines describes getting sick from swimming in the creek. He also talks about needing to be saved by a lifeguard on a church trip to a pool. He later became a lifeguard and describes his own experiences.

 Eugene Farrar - Cement (clip)

Eugene Farrar (EF): My daddy was a self-made cement finisher who did it for over 50 years. George Barrett (GB): What was your dad’s name? EF: Toy Farrar, Sr. And he worked in Virginia because there wasn’t any work in Chapel Hill, and he worked for the university when they were building the hospital.…

 Eugene Farrar - Early work (clip)

Eugene Farrar (EF): But those were days where they would start working in the morning before the sun came up and work till the sun went down in a lot of cases because they wanted to put in long hours – they were getting paid by the hour, not by the job. So – George Barrett (GB): And Mr. Farrar, you…

 Eugene Farrar - Family helping family (clip)

Eugene Farrar (EF): I used to help when I was 12 or 13 years old, but I couldn’t handle big rocks like grown men could, but I would go out and give my hand every once and a while, and of course, I didn’t get paid, but it was a thing of family helping family. And of course, if I didn’t get paid,…

 Eugene Farrar - Family support (clip)

Eugene Farrar (EF): My family was a very large family, and we sacrificed, and we would help each other, give each other – if you raised a garden and you had peas, string beans, potatoes, and somebody else raised a garden that had cucumbers, tomatoes, and something else, we would exchange. If you had…

 Eugene Farrar - Hard working (clip)

Eugene Farrar (EF): I think hard work, but struggle of course, hard work and struggle back then. Perseverance – we had to make it, so we made the best out of what we had, and that wasn’t very much. Very few cars were in Chapel Hill.

 Eugene Farrar - History (clip)

Eugene Farrar (EF): I just want to say thank you all for what you’re doing. The only way our history can get told right is that we have to tell it. So I appreciate what you all are doing to explore that avenue of telling history like it’s supposed to be told, from the people who lived it. We’re the…

 Eugene Farrar - Most Important Community Action (clip)

In this clip, Mr. Farrar talks about registering to vote, but more importantly, actually exercising the right to vote in elections.

 Eugene Farrar - On Chapel Hill (clip)

 Eugene Farrar - Singing Spirituals (clip)

In this clip, Mr. Farrar sings and talks about the importance of religion and music to African American life from the slavery period to today.

 Eugene Farrar - Sources of rock (clip)

Eugene Farrar (EF): They would buy some rocks. I’m sure that they had places where they were buying them. I never knew where they bought rock and things like that. I don’t think we had a rock yard. There may have been a rock yard around here somewhere, but I don’t know where it was. They built…

 Eugene Farrar - UNC rock work (clip)

Eugene Farrar (EF): You know, like I say, doing this rock work was something to behold. My grandfather did – my family and I’m sure probably some other people did it – but I do know my family laid most of the rock down on the University. And they’re still there. George Barrett (GB): And by your…

 Eugene Farrar - Uncle James Blacknell (clip)

Eugene Farrar (EF): Yes, the family member in the photo is my uncle, who is my grandfather’s son, and what I know from growing up, he was a rock layer – he laid rocks – which was a really tough job. You had to break rocks and small rocks and things like that to fit – like a puzzle really. It was a…

 Eugene Farrar - What makes you the best (clip)

Eugene Farrar (EF): Because you could trust him to do it. What makes you the best is knowing your craft. He didn’t go to school to learn how to pour cement – he taught himself how to do it. So that made him one of the “go-to” people in Chapel Hill. There were other people finishing cement – Mr. Earl…

 Euzelle and R.D. Smith - On being newlyweds (clip)

 Euzelle and R.D. Smith - On community (clip)

 Euzelle and R.D. Smith - On daycare (clip)

 Euzelle and R.D. Smith - On how to drive (clip)

 Euzelle and R.D. Smith - On school (clip)

 Euzelle and R.D. Smith - On the schoolhouse (clip)

 Euzelle and R.D. Smith - On wedding photos (clip)

 Euzelle Smith and R.D. Smith - On service (clip)

 Frances Hargraves - on being the first certified special education teacher in Orange County (clip)

FH: at that time it was hard to find qualified teachers. That's why they sent me. I was the first teacher in Orange County to be certified to teach special education. So I ran a lot of workshops. And when I came back, UNC, this university up here sent students to me to train. BG: In teaching…

 Frances Hargraves - on community support for Lincoln High students (clip)

BG: I think this is interesting, and a lot of it is theoretical. So I want to go back to Lincoln High School and more of your memories of Lincoln High School. What the teachers were like, what the students were like. The sports, and the band, the chorus. Anything else you remember from Lincoln…

 Frances Hargraves - on her experience at Hackney School (clip)

FH: I guess I was just like any other youngster. I was more concerned about the neighborhood and being accepted by my peers and also my relatives. Just being a part of what was going on, and playing games, and going to school like any child would at that period. You must remember I was born in 1914.…

 Frances Hargraves - on school pride at Lincoln High (clip)

BG: What was the feeling about Lincoln High School when it was moved to Merritt Mill Road in 1951? How did the community relate to the school? FH: Wonderful, wonderful! Good heavens, you had everything: space, better school, more equipment. All of it was just wonderful. Very accepting of moving to a…

 Fred Battle - On May Day (clip)

 Freda Andrews - on early experiences teaching and cultural differences (clip)

 Freda Andrews - On her experience at Northside (clip)

Freda Andrews: I grew up walking to Northside Elementary School because that’s the mode of transportation in those days. And I would cross a little branch everyday going to Northside, which was 20 minutes from my house, if that much. The only difficulty with that sometimes, the little water would…

 Freda Andrews - on her work as a remediation specialist (clip)

 Freda Andrews - on poetry she would always read to her students (clip)

 Freda Andrews - teaching during the civil rights movement (clip)

 Freda Andrews- on the impact her teachers had on her life (clip)

 Garrett Penley - Distribution of Wealth (clip)

 Garrett Penley - Huertos, Food Disparities and St. Joseph's Food Ministry (clip)

 Garrett Penley - Interconnectedness vs. Societal Cancer (clip)

 Garrett Penley - Introduction (clip)

 Garrett Penley - Real Things (clip)

 Garrett Penley - Vision for Community (clip)

 Gladys Pendergraph Brandon - Lemonade (clip)

In this audio clip, Ms. Gladys talks to Della Pollock about her approach to living the best life.

 Gracie Webb - Holiday Memories (clip)

Gracie Webb describes holiday cooking in her family.To hear more from Gracie Webb, listen to her full oral history "Gracie Webb - On her family, growing up in Northside, and changes in Northside."

 Isabel Atwater - On her family's laundry business (clip)

 James Atwater - On the importance of Black teachers (clip)

Listen to James Atwater speak about the importance and impact of Black educators and his teacher Mrs. Turner. Mr. Atwater is an alumni of Lincoln High School, the Black high school prior to desegregation.

 Janie Alston - On activities and events at Hargraves (clip)

Janie Alston describes nursery school and Girl Scouts at Hargraves and talks about a going-away party held for her there when she was 14 and moving out of the area.

 Janie Alston - On her family history (clip)

Alex Biggers (AB): I'm Alex Biggers, this is Hudson Vaughan. We're here with Janie Alston on Lindsey Street. It's April 20th, about like, 10 o'clock in the morning. Hudson Vaughan (HV): Awesome. We're just going to put this down, and then, let's just keep going. You just forget about that. At any…

 Janie Alston - On what she likes about her neighborhood (clip)

HV: What do you think, like, stands out most about, like, what do you like most about your home? JA: Because I grew up here, and I grew up in the area. See, my kids don't have any connection, because they grew up in Connecticut. But, you know, we could walk – I'd come by here every morning and wait…

 Janie Johnson - On community (clip)

 Judy Hines - On returning to the community (clip)

She describes coming back to the community and seeing so many people she knew as a child and talks about Ms. Lucille at Hargraves. “You didn’t play with Ms. Lucille.”

 Judy Nunn Snipes and Gertrude Nunn - On the impact of the landfill and activism (clip)

 Judy Nunn Snipes and Gertrude Nunn - On living on Rogers Road when it was a wagon road (clip)

Darius Scott (DS): So, before you married Mr. Nunn, you were living over on Rogers Road? Judy Nunn Snipes (JS): Yes. Gertrude Nunn (GN): Exactly. DS: And at that time, it was still the wagon trail? S: Yes. GN: Yeah, uh-huh. DS: And could you talk a little bit about ? GN: I know nothing about a…

 Judy Nunn-Ellison Snipes - On about the efforts to protect her community from the landfill (clip)

 Judy Nunn-Ellison Snipes - On bedrock and dynamite (clip)

 Judy Nunn-Ellison Snipes - On being bullied (clip)

 Judy Nunn-Ellison Snipes - On her journey as a leader (clip)

 Judy Nunn-Ellison Snipes - On how the landfill destroyed her family's land (clip)

 Judy Nunn-Ellison Snipes - On the beginnings of the landfill and its impact (clip)

 Judy Nunn-Ellison Snipes - On the impact of Duke Energy ordinances on her family property (clip)

 Judy Nunn-Ellison Snipes - On the impact of gentrification (clip)

 Judy Nunn-Ellison Snipes - On the landfill and loss of Black-owned homes (clip)

 Kalee McClain - On her cooking business and her state certification (clip)

 Kalee McClain - On her volunteer work (clip)

 Kalee McClain - On her volunteer work at RENA (clip)

 Katherine Council - Holiday Memories (clip)

Katherine "Mama Kat" Council recalls students and neighbors at the holidays.To hear more from Katherine Council, listen to her full oral history "Katherine Council - On growing up in Chapel Hill and changes in the neighborhood."

 Kathy Atwater - Everybody was just family (clip)

In this clip, Ms. Kathy talks about how living in the Northside neighborhood was like being part of one, big family--everyone looked out for each other.

 Kathy Atwater - On gardens (clip)

 Kathy Atwater - On the kitchen (clip)

 Keely Hargraves - On learning how to swim (clip)

Keely Hargraves recalls learning to swim at Hargraves when she was nine years old.

 Kelven Hargraves - On memories and changes at Hargraves (clip)

Kelven Hargraves remembers attending nursery school and playing sports at Hargraves and the changes he has seen at the Center since the days when it had an orange dirt path instead of a sidewalk. He talks about the Center giving young people in the Black community a safe place to go to play and…

 Linda Carver - I Used to Sit at the Counter (clip)

Ms. Linda discusses what happened when "Big John," a local shop owner, refused to serve black customers --who made up the bulk of his business-- at his lunch counter.

 Lorie Clark - On A.D. Clark Pool (clip)

Describes her gratitude for the pool, which is named after her great uncle, Uncle Dot.

 Louise Felix - Buildings Constructed by John Wesley Campbell (clip)

Louise Felix: My grandfather built the Hargraves Center and in 1924 he built Northside School and in Carrboro on Graham Street, he built those two rock houses over there. His son lived in one, he and his son, they did all the rock work themselves. So, we lived on Graham Street, 215. We lived on…

 Louise Felix - On domestic work (clip)

 Louise Felix - On work (clip)

 Louise Felix - Praise for work (clip)

Louise Felix: I know when the man came from State to do the job and I went over there across the street and I was talking to him and he said, I was telling him about how my grandaddy built the school. And he said, “What?” And I said, “Yeah he and all of his sons.” And he told me to come around there…

 Louise Felix - Quality of work (clip)

Louise Felix: I think my grandaddy what they were saying, you would need to ask Peter. I think he built every rock house when he was coming up there, except the one on Merritt Mill Road Road with his sons and things. Down there in front of Lincoln Center that house across the street, the rock house.…

 Louise Felix - The Campbell boys (clip)

Louise Felix: Out of the boys, four. Kathryn Wall: All four boys. Do you know the names of all four boys? I know you said your Uncle Handy. Louise Felix: Uncle Leo, Uncle George, and Uncle Bill Kathryn Wall: Okay. And did any of their sons go into building with them? Louise Felix: No, after they…

 Marian Cheek Jackson (clip)

 Mary Norwood Jones - Holiday Memories (clip)

Mary Norwood Jones shares her memories of Santa.To hear more from Mary Norwood Jones, listen to her full oral history "Mary Norwood Jones - On her experiences at Orange County Training School."

 Mary Norwood Jones - on college attendance and teacher encouragement (clip)

BG: I wanted to ask you about the football team, what you remember about the football team. MJ: I remember Mr. R. 0. Kornegay was coach of the football team. He coached all athletics. He was my first basketball coach. BG: So he coached boys and girls. MJ: Boys and girls basketball and he coached…

 Mary Norwood Jones - on her experience in the band under Mr.Pickard (clip)

BG: What was the band like under Mr. Pickard? MJ: Well, we were getting started and what happened then was that Mr. Pickard would put all of the instruments out on tables and people would go into the room and choose the instrument that they were interested in playing so that everyone would know all…

 Mary Norwood Jones - On her teachers at Orange County Training School (clip)

BG: What was your involvement in sports here at Orange County Training School? MJ: Well, they had different clubs and I was a member of just about every club in the school. My favorite was playing basketball, and I started playing basketball when I was in the sixth grade, Mr. Judas Scales was my…

 Mary Norwood Jones - On Orange County Training School (clip)

Mary Norwood Jones (MNJ): Well, not at Northside. It was Orange County Training School and this school became Northside in 1951. My class was the last graduating class to attend this school and graduate from twelfth grade. At that particular time it was named Lincoln. The name of the school was…

 Mildred Council - On her mother (clip)

 Min. Robert Campbell - Encourages youth to know their history to build a better future (clip)

 Min. Robert Campbell - On community activism through RENA (clip)

 Min. Robert Campbell - On his fifty-seven year pursuit of bridging divides between races (clip)

 Min. Robert Campbell - On how community engagement improves quality of life (clip)

 Min. Robert Campbell - On how community events unites people with differences (clip)

 Min. Robert Campbell - On lessons from the Navy (clip)

 Min. Robert Campbell - On the community of Black builders (clip)

Minister Robert Campbell: There were, there were times where there were a lot of brick masons here in Chapel Hill, people of color. The thing is, once you begin to teach skills and then it came, it came a time, and that time did not change back until I will say… around about the later part of the…

 Min. Robert Campbell - On the impact of youth's involvement in RENA (clip)

 Min. Robert Campbell - On the importance of the youth's conduct (clip)

 Min. Robert Campbell - On the rabbit and the turtle race (clip)

 Min. Robert Campbell - On the rewards of RENA's community engagement (clip)

 Minister Robert Campbell - Ask your wife (clip)

Minister Robert Campbell: “Well, it all depends on the function. A residential home uses smaller rocks, a commercial type you have bigger rocks. And you can actually see that the rocks at Hargraves are a little bigger than the rocks that you see on the rock houses on Graham and Moore Street. And so…

 Minister Robert Campbell - Blueprints (clip)

Minister Robert Campbell: We did blueprints. It was easy to do the sketches first, because you could say well, this is what we got, do we want the storage room a little bit bigger? So, it gave people the opportunity to change their minds. Do you want the front and back door to be centered, or do you…

 Minister Robert Campbell - Buff and shine (clip)

 Minister Robert Campbell - Buildings constructed by family (clip)

Robert Campbell: There are several homes, if you take the long journey around. There are some houses on Jones Ferry Road. It all depends on what end of Jones Ferry Road you start on. If you start over there by Terry’s Creek, you’ll see some of his handiwork. But over here in Chapel Hill there’s…

 Minister Robert Campbell - Campbell building style (clip)

Minister Robert Campbell: Well, looking at the texture of the craftsmanship of the house you can see, as I said, you know, Handy’s signature and Bill’s signature is that it’s good. I mean, they wasn’t boastful but, it had to be something that not only they were proud of, but the person who hired…

 Minister Robert Campbell - Family history (clip)

Robert Campbell: He was our inspiration. Sometimes sitting around telling the tales about growing up and the things they had to endure – I think it just made him a more persistent and stronger person, and in doing so, to teach his children as well as his grandchildren how to fend for themselves. If…

 Minister Robert Campbell - Ingenuity (clip)

Minister Robert Campbell: My cousin Gloria – my grandfather was teaching us all how to be a part of the work he was doing – she also helped put that wall together. She also made a different mixture of concrete – well, cement – with a mixture of lime in it. There’s a rock in there, it’s huge, and…

 Minister Robert Campbell - Inspiration (clip)

Robert Campbell: He was our inspiration. Sometimes sitting around telling the tales about growing up and the things they had to endure – I think it just made him a more persistent and stronger person, and in doing so, to teach his children as well as his grandchildren how to fend for themselves. If…

 Minister Robert Campbell - Money in the ground (clip)

 Minister Robert Campbell - Mortar and cement (clip)

Minister Robert Campbell: In the mortar and cement, there’s a certain amount per bag that you mix with sand to enhance and strengthen the mixture. In the cement, you would have more sand in it than you would in the mortar mixture itself. When it comes to the concrete, it would be a mixture of…

 Minister Robert Campbell - On Aunt Callie (clip)

 Minister Robert Campbell - On Chapel Hill masons

 Minister Robert Campbell - On Chapel Hill rocks (clip)

 Minister Robert Campbell - On concrete (clip)

 Minister Robert Campbell - On Franklin Street (clip)

 Minister Robert Campbell - On his family history (clip)

 Minister Robert Campbell - On needs of the community (clip)

Adwoa Asare: Could you just tell us a little bit about who you are and what you’re involved in with the community? Minister Robert Campbell: Yes. I’m Minister Robert Campbell. I was ordained at Faith Tabernacle in the ’80s. I am the president of the Roger-Eubanks Neighborhood Association, co-chair…

 Minister Robert Campbell - On rafter (clip)

 Minister Robert Campbell - On recipes (clip)

Minister Robert Campbell: “I miss him teaching us how to play the piano…My grandfather, he could blow, he could blow. He was our inspiration. Sometimes, sitting around telling the tales about growing up and the things he had to endure. I think it just made him a more persistent and stronger person.…

 Minister Robert Campbell - On teaching for the future (clip)

 Minister Robert Campbell - On the brick bat (clip)

 Minister Robert Campbell - On the Ministerial Alliance (clip)

Minister Robert Campbell: The Ministerial Alliance in Chapel Hill and Carrboro have been very instrumental. Through it, the foundation of the Civil Rights Movement was really established. And under the mentoring of Dr. J. R. Manley and Rev. Foushee that was at St. Joseph Church during this time, and…

 Minister Robert Campbell - On the Swain house (clip)

 Minister Robert Campbell - On walls (clip)

 Minister Robert Campbell - Process of building (clip)

Robert Campbell: The first thing is you got to have your plans. You got to have your concept, so that you can basically make sure that you’ll be able to find all the material for that building and how far you might have to ship it. And I will say that fortunately for most of the construction that…

 Minister Robert Campbell - Signatures (clip)

Minister Robert Campbell: My grandfather used to put signatures in his house. You can easily find the one in Mr. Neville’s house. I haven’t been able to find that, but I know what I'm looking for. Those type of things let you see the ability, the craftiness…

 Minister Robert Campbell - Slinging bricks (clip)

Robert Campbell: Going back to constructing some of the houses. Uncle Leo and Uncle Handy and Uncle Bill taught us how to sling bricks. George Barrett: Ok. RC: Sling bricks. Sometimes you could take a flat board, almost like a paddle, you could throw the bricks up and somebody could catch them and…

 Minister Robert Campbell - Teaching others (clip)

Minister Robert Campbell: My grandfather and most of the builders were eager to be tutors and train other people how to do their type of work. It came in handy for us because we didn’t have to look for a summer job – because we already knew what we were going to be doing. We found out to have fun –…

 Minister Robert Lee Campbell - On the Role of Pastors as Leaders (clip)

Listen to Minister Robert Lee Campbell, of Faith Tabernacle Oasis of Love International Church, talk about the role of pastors as leaders in the community.

 Nate Davis - On the A.D. Clark Pool (clip)

 Nate Davis - On the B1 Navy Band (clip)

 Nate Davis - On the construction of Hargraves Community Center (clip)

 Nate Davis - On the uses of Hargraves Community Center (clip)

 Patricia Jackson - Fire Hose (clip)

In this audio clip, Ms. Pat (speaking with Della Pollock) tells the story of the time she went to Franklin Street and got caught up in a protest at Big John's pharmacy.

 Patricia Jackson - On her understanding of ministry (clip)

 Reginald Hildebrand - Coming to St. Paul AME Church (clip)

Reginald Hildebrand (RH): The other connection I have, I developed in Chapel Hill around that time the church. And how that developed, I was living in Durham and had really wanted to attend a church in Durham, to establish myself in that community. I visited the best known AME church in Durham,…

 Reginald Hildebrand - Family Land (clip)

Reginald Hildebrand (RH): My grandmother’s parents, my great grandparents, on my father’s side, were slaves. Often heard stories of him coming out of slavery and his master providing some land that was actually in the family until like the 1980s. It was not common, but it happened enough that it was…

 Reginald Hildebrand - Greenbridge (clip)

Rob Stephens (RS): And you say you did talk to elders about it? Reginald Hildebrand (RH): Yeah. Elders, I mean older people, not officials of the church. RS: Yeah. RH: Yeah. But these are the same people you’re talking to. Velma Perry and Rebecca Clark and others like that and they had, well it…

 Reginald Hildebrand - On church leadership transitions (clip)

Rachel Broun: I know you’ve been at St. Paul through several pastors, what are the transitions like and how has that defined your relationship with the church throughout so many different leaders? Reginald Hildebrand: Again this is one of the strengths and weaknesses of the Methodist Tradition.…

 Reginald Hildebrand - On women's roles at St. Paul AME Church (clip)

Reginald Hildebrand: When moving around the community when Ms. Perry’s name came up and she was designated a Town Treasure at one point. Again, the kind of respect and accomplishment she had—I think she spent one year at Bennett and then she had to come back and take care of her mother who was ill.…

 Reginald Hildebrand - Racism and Quaker School (clip)

Reginald Hildebrand (RH): In the 4th grade, go to my parents, there was a Quaker school in Atlantic City. They had a good experience, thought it was worth the investment sending me to a Quaker School in Philadelphia, they wanted to do the same there. I went there, took exams, and the head mistress…

 Reginald Hildebrand - Rebecca Clark (clip)

Reginald Hildebrand (RH): And so, I was very much aware of her, and her as a force in that church, and in that community, and was very much aware of her supportive involvement and engagement with any young – at that time, I was relatively young – person who appeared to be trying to make something of…

 Reginald Hildebrand - The Hildebrand Name (clip)

Reginald Hildebrand: This is the story that’s handed down in the family, that at the time of emancipation they were on a plantation in South Carolina owned by a family named Wannamaker. Most of the slaves on that plantation took the name Wannamker and for that first generation, all of the slaves –…

 Reginald Hildebrand - UNC-NOW (clip)

Rob Stephens (RS): And was there any so… what did you think when this, when this St. Joseph’s partnership with students, the UNC-NOW group, came up? Reginald Hildebrand: I was amazed. I was ama– ‘cause there’s nothing in my experience since the 1960s to prepare me for that. There was no, there’s no…

 Rev. Albert Williams - On teachers at Northside Elementary (clip)

 Reverend Troy Harrison - Faith Built This Community (clip)

Listen to Rev. Troy Harrison, former pastor of St. Joseph CME Church, speak about how faith sustained the Black communities of southern Orange County.

 Ronnie Bynum - Carrboro Klan (clip)

In this audio clip, Ronnie Bynum talks to Heidi Dodson about what it was like in Carrboro before and after desegregation.

 Ronnie Bynum - On community creating change (clip)

 Ronnie Bynum - On Martin Luther King, Jr. (clip)

 Ronnie Bynum - On the construction of AD Clark Pool (clip)

 Ronnie Bynum - On the need for a pool (clip)

 Russell Edwards - Applechill (clip)

 Russell Edwards - Civil Rights (clip)

 Russell Edwards - Dr. Lloyd (clip)

 Russell Edwards - Greenbridge and Northside (clip)

 Russell Edwards - Lincoln High and Chapel Hill High (clip)

 Russell Edwards - Lynching (clip)

 Senator Valerie Foushee - On the influence of faith on her life and career (clip)

 Spring Council - On diving at the pool (clip)

Spring Council describes getting up on the diving board at A.D. Clark pool, but not being able to jump.

 Spring Council - On recycling bottles (clip)

Spring Council remembers collecting bottles to recycle for cash to spend at the pool.

 Stanley Vickers - Integrating Chapel Hill Junior High School (clip)

 Stanley Vickers - On his participation in the Civil Rights Movement (clip)

 Stanley Vickers - On protesting and the coverage of the Civil Rights Movement (clip)

 Thomas Merritt - On fighting for civil rights (clip)

MCJC Staff: “At the same time, kids in town were fighting for civil rights?” Thomas Merritt: “Yes. They were fighting for civil rights because they wanted to go places and to be free to go places and do things. Dairy Queen [chuckle]. Down at the bottom of Franklin Street, in the dirt parking lot…

 Thomas Merritt - On his father (clip)

MCJC Staff: “So, could you tell us what [growing up on Church Street] was like - sisters, brothers?” Thomas Merritt: “Oh one sister older, one brother younger. We were pretty well off back then. My mother she worked for Danziger’s Old World gift shop. My father worked at different restaurants, and…

 Thomas Merritt - On the theft of his family land (clip)

MCJC Staff: “So what happened to the land?” Thomas Merritt: “Well, a lady came by and she had some papers and she tried to get my grandmother to sign them. So she forged her signature on them and she took the land. And I think she felt guilty. And my brother knew the whole story about what had…

 Troy Harrison - There's a struggle going on (clip)

In this short clip, Rev. Harrison talks about his dream for Chapel Hill.

 Valerie Foushee - On attending segregated elementary schools (clip)

Valerie Foushee (VF): When I started elementary school I started at Northside, which has just been deconstructed. First grade at Northside, and when I went to Northside the district was preparing to close that facility and when I was there there was no cafeteria. And so for one whole year—now I…

 Valerie Foushee - On how the first students integrated Chapel Hill schools (clip)

TB: So when you went to Frank Porter Graham then, at that point was your decision to go there that at that point that it was the closest, and so it was this sort of idea of a neighborhood school— VF: It wasn’t a decision. TB: Ok, so they districted— VF: We were still segregated— TB: --still that…

 Valerie Foushee - On race relations after desegregation in junior high school (clip)

Tracey Barrett (TB) : Right. So you, I mean, you sound like you changed schools a lot, in terms of school buildings and I’m assuming also the students you were in school with changed a lot too, how did that affect the way you viewed school, or do you think that it affected your education as a…

 Valerie Foushee - On race relations at Chapel Hill High School (clip)

Valerie Foushee (VF): by the time we got through Phillips, my whole class, black and white, it was just a big friendship. We had come through a lot of those things that we went through when I was in seventh grade with boycotts at the high school that kind of like trickled down to the middle school,…

 Valerie P. Foushee - On getting into politics (clip)

Tracey Barrett (TB): How did you decide to sort of get into politics? I mean, you described a long career in the Police Department, and obviously you were working your way up in many ways, from where you started to where you ended up as an administrator, but what led to your decision to -– am I…

 Valerie P. Foushee - On her accomplishments with the School Board

Tracey Barrett (TB): What is something that you are most proud of? That, sort of, you feel like was an accomplishment during your time on the School Board, that you look back on and say, like “I’m glad that I was there for that” or “I know I made a difference in that way?” Valerie Foushee (VF): My…

 Valerie P. Foushee - On her activism and social life while at UNC (clip)

Valerie Foushee: ...or I would just kind of like stay in my room, watch TV and study, but I was at Carolina, and that was important. Tracey Barrett: So did you, you lived on campus all four years? VF: I lived on campus for two years, and my roommate the first year was a sophomore from the Henderson…

 Valerie P. Foushee - On her career after leaving UNC (clip)

TB: So after you left you mentioned that you were working full time, what job were you working at? Valerie Foushee: I started out working part time while I was at Carolina for the Chapel Hill School system driving a school bus and being a bus monitor, and then I got a job at Blue Cross and Blue…

 Velma Perry - Holiday Memories (clip)

Velma Perry tells about holiday dances in Northside.To hear more from Velma Perry, listen to her full oral history "Velma Perry - On the history and future of Northside."

 Velma Perry - On the founding of St. Paul AME Church (clip)

 Vernelle Brooks Jones and Charles Brooks - Becoming Contractors (clip)

Charles Brooks: My grandfather and my father, they started out as subcontractors and they used to do a lot of work for like JP Co. Force Security Builders. They even did some framing for Tate Construction. In the early 70s my father ended up obtaining his contractor’s license and that is when they…

 Vernelle Brooks Jones and Charles Brooks - Differences between Contractors and Subcontractors (clip)

Charles Brooks: Subcontractors usually they are not licensed, especially for like my grandfather and my father, they were carpenters. So, like when I say they subbed that means they would go in once the foundation was put in on a house, they would go in and do all of the framing, do all of the…

 Vernelle Brooks Jones and Charles Brooks - Family History (clip)

Vernelle Brooks Jones: Because back, all the way back to my great grandfather who was also a builder. His, he was the first Charles David Brooks. And then my grandaddy was Charles David Brooks II. And onto my dad, Charles David Brooks III and my brother Charles David Brooks IV. And my nephew is…

 Vernelle Brooks Jones and Charles Brooks - Family Legacy (clip)

Vernelle Brooks Jones: I would say that you know they were very persistent in their trade. In spite of the lack of funds and lack of opportunities and all the other things that go around that, they ended up being successful builders. And to this day, the legacy of what they did years ago is still…

 Vernelle Brooks Jones and Charles Brooks - Giving Back (clip)

Charles Brooks: My father and grandfather, their pricing would always be a lot lower than if they had gone to a larger contractor. So, a lot of people we did work for, we, my grandfather and my father, saved them a lot of money. Vernelle Brooks Jones: So, I will just add to that, that unfortunately…

 Vernelle Brooks Jones and Charles Brooks - Segregation (clip)

Vernelle Brooks Jones: I will say, tell a little story about this. My father shared this with us, he always went with his dad wherever he went because he was the one that took up the building aspect of the business. He was browner in complexion, and he said he would go in downtown Chapel Hill to one…

 Vernelle Brooks Jones and Charles Brooks - Subdivision (clip)

Charles Brooks: For me, I would say a lot of hard work. Back then if you had your own business you had to put a lot of hard work into it and there was a lot to overcome as far as finances if you wanted to go out and do stuff on your own, it was kind of hard to get the financing to do things, so I…

 Vernelle Brooks Jones and Charles Brooks - Working with Homeowners (clip)

Charles Brooks: I mean they would come to my father and grandfather with a set of plans, they would go from there. Sometimes you had to deviate from the plans to save money. But they definitely had to work hand in hand with the owners to find what they had and couldn’t have. They definitely dealt…

 Vernelle Brooks Jones and Charles Brooks - Young People Going into Construction Today (clip)

Charles Brooks: As far as young people getting into this right now. You don’t really see a lot of people going into the trades, like becoming plumbers, carpenters. For one thing the pay scale, I mean everything, it’s like everyone wants to do IT work, sit at home, got your computer, making a lot of…

 Veronita Hargraves - On her family's legacy at Hargraves (clip)

Ms. Hargraves explains that she didn’t know her father Billy, for whom Hargraves Center was named. She describes the legacy for her family and her pride in knowing how the Hargraves Center and the pool have impacted the community.

 Virginia Medean on Healthcare and the St. Joseph's Food Ministry (clip)

Virginia Medean (VM): My husband, I said you know, he has serious healthcare needs, which will affect where he will be able to work. Ella Wise/Rachel Mossey (EW/RM): Mhm VM: And, so it’s sort of an enforced poverty, even though it was out of our control that it happened – and I have a lot of…

 Virginia Medean on Meeting Needs and Addressing Problems (clip)

Virginia Medean: I think community takes people talking to each other and just finding what your similar needs are. I’ve met lots of people because I have a car, and I say to people, “Anybody need a ride to the other side of town?” Ella Wise: What else makes a community? So we talked about walking…

 Virginia Medean on Racism and a Progressive Town (clip)

 Virginia Medean on St. Joseph and Church Activism (clip)

Ella Wise/Rachel Mossey (EW/RM): How have you seen Saint Joseph’s though – the role of Saint Joseph’s in this community? Virginia Medean (VM): They’ve always been a strong advocate for justice, social justice, and community means. They have a wonderful pastor now– EW/RM: Mhm. VM: –And [pause] I…

 Wanda Weaver - On Bynum Weaver Funeral Home (clip)

Wanda Weaver: My dad was the owner and operator of Chapel Hill Funeral Home, which is only two funeral homes that was in Chapel Hill, a black funeral home and a white funeral home. Walker’s Funeral Home which is on Franklin street still there and right here on Graham Street was Chapel Hill Funeral…

 William “Smitty” Smith - Arts and Science (clip)

William Smith: The art form is designing a project and having a finished project. The science is whether you are going to use S type model or pouring the cement. In some cases, you can do a rock wall that has neither mortar mix or concrete. It has no mortar at all, so there is a difference. So, if…

 William “Smitty” Smith - Builders Gateway (clip)

William Smith: What I would suggest at least when they decide to do it and have a design, that they specify to use some of the old masons. They could specify that and see how it works. And even now being retired, I could put something together and put something together. But they would have to have…

 William “Smitty” Smith - Class Description (clip)

William Smith: Well, it was a room that had a pile of bricks, a pile of sand, and bags of lye. Just an open space. Then we had a project, and the projects began with a 6-brick lead. 6-brick lead being you lay out 6 bricks and the next course is 5, the next course is 4, the next one is 3 and that’s…

 William “Smitty” Smith - Developing an Eye (clip)

William Smith: With brick and blocks everything is straight, it is dimensional. With stone it is not dimensional. You have to develop an eye and when we say eye, that means you can pick up a rock and find a place in the wall for it. You know? So, that is an ongoing thing. So, if you were, we’d never…

 William “Smitty” Smith - Differences between Rock Masonry and Stone Masonry (clip)

William Smith: The term, “stone mason” is misunderstood. Sometimes, basically what we did in the local area is we were rock masons. Stone masons are different. Being a stone mason, you have to cut, shape, and make the stones fit. Rock mason is not that way. You just take a rock as it is and lay it…

 William “Smitty” Smith - Good Masonry (clip)

William Smith: That’s the very difficult question because masons, I’ll give you an example, we had a mason one time come to work with a pair of white shoes. He worked all day and when he left his shoes were still white. No mortar on them at all and the quality of his work was superb. Okay now you…

 William “Smitty” Smith - Learning Brick and Stone Masonry (clip)

William Smith: I had a masonry class in high school for one year and that was being a brick mason. Actually, I was trained as a brick mason, and I became a stone mason in the later years. Enjoyed doing stonework because it was very creative and that was the part that really interested me.

 William “Smitty” Smith - Learning the Basics (clip)

William Smith: Well, when you do projects, you do a project over and over and over, and then progress it. You start out with a six-break lead, then you’ll do a pier, then you’ll do something else, then you’ll do a fireplace. But then once, these are just basics that you learn. You don’t really learn…

 William “Smitty” Smith - Mentors (clip)

William Smith: The secret is developing an eye you know. One guy can see a rock and find a place to put it. Another guy would have something and have a problem placing the rock. It all determines in how you see that rock and how it fits in your design. Danielle: It definitely seems like a talent as…

 William “Smitty” Smith - Owning a Business (clip)

William Smith: But the thing about being in business is you have to be very careful. If you’re working outside of your capacity, you’re in trouble. So, to be successful you have to stay in your capacity. Danielle Dulken: Because you’ll over promise if you’re outside of it? William Smith: Well when I…

 William “Smitty” Smith - Pride in His Work (clip)

William Smith: I was not an academic person so building was something that I could do and I could look at it after it was finished and brag about it because it was hands on and I enjoyed doing things with my hands. Danielle Dulken: And when you say brag about it, you must have been very good at…

 William “Smitty” Smith - Self Taught (clip)

William Smith: After I married, I decided to go into business for myself, and we did that and then we began to try to do that. I only did bricks. After then, I was approached on a job at the Carolina Inn by my boss and he asked if you could lay rocks, and I only had one answer and that was “yes.”…

 Willis Farrington - On events at Hargraves Community Center (clip)

 Willis Farrington - On Hargraves being a home away from home (clip)

 Willis Farrington - On his prison ministry (clip)

 Willis Farrington - On Mr. White Bynum building A.D. Clark Pool (clip)

 Willis Farrington - On renaming Hargraves Community Center (clip)

 Willis Farrington - On the changes at Hargraves Community Center (clip)

 Willistine McClain - Holiday Memories (clip)

Willistine McClain remembers her mother's holiday fruitcakes.To hear more from Willistine McClain, listen to her full oral history "Williestine McLean - On her childhood, parents, food, and farming."