Civil Rights

 “Eat at Joe's Black and White” Banner

As they march from St. Joseph CME church toward downtown Chapel Hill, local African American students, religious leaders, and UNC students rally behind a banner declaring “Eat at Joe’s Black & White.”

 A demonstrator is attacked at Watts Restaurant during a sit-in in Chapel Hill, NC.

 A slogan painted on the door of a truck in Carrboro, NC.

A slogan painted on the door of a truck in Carrboro, NC.

 A UNC representative of the Student Peace Union pickets the segregated College Cafe.

 A woman stares at protesters who block her car from exiting the university parking lot.

 Albert Simms Williams - On his life, family, community, and faith

Rev. Albert Williams is the minister at Staunton Memorial CME Church in Pittsboro. He is a lifetime resident of the area and was the first African American firefighter in Chapel Hill. This interview was conducted as part of the Jackson Center’s local life history series. Topics include: childhood…

 Before each sit-in, demonstrators had to agree to practice nonviolent resistance by going limp to neither assist nor resist arrest.

Before each sit-in, demonstrators had to agree to practice nonviolent resistance by going limp to neither assist nor resist arrest.   Here, they lie on Franklin Street, awaiting transportation to jail.

 Boys stage a counter-protest directed at marchers at the segregated Colonial Drug

Boys stage a counter-protest directed at marchers at the segregated Colonial Drug.

 Carol Brooks and Keith Edwards - On the Civil Rights Movement in Chapel Hill

The interviewees provide an overview of the Chapel Hill Civil Rights Movement. They specifically note the emotion of CRM marches of Chapel Hill, Raleigh, and Durham in 1963. They speak on Watt’s Hotel discrimination and Civil Rights leadership in the area, especially of the friendly Pottersfield…

 Chapel Hill police officers round up demonstrators for arrest at the Chapel Hill/Carrboro Merchants Association sit-in

Chapel Hill police officers David Caldwell, Coy Durham, Charles Allison, and Herman Stone round up demonstrators for arrest at the Chapel Hill/Carrboro Merchants Association sit-in.

David Caldwell is the Black officer standing on the left. Judy Booth can be seen sitting in the front. Raeford…

 Chapel Hill Police stand between civil rights demonstrators and counter-protesters at Colonial Drug

Chapel Hill Police Lt. Graham Creel (left) and John Nesbitt (right) stand between civil rights demonstrators and counter-protesters at Colonial Drug. Larry Caswell is the little boy holding the sign “Sing Along with John.” “2-4-6-8- who the hell wants to integrate” was almost a national chant in…

 Civil Rights protesters march from St. Joseph C.M.E. to Franklin Street

A protest march makes its way from St. Joseph's CME Church to Franklin Street. To maintain calm, the Chapel Hill police often treated the marches as parades. Eat at Joe's, the restaurant named in the banner carried in the front, was named in many signs protesting segregation. The owner was a vocal…

 Clementine (Fearrington) Self leads demonstrators

Clementine (Fearrington) Self leads demonstrators.   Marchers almost always carried the American flag, but not the North Carolina flag, during their protests.From left to right: Theodore “Buddy” Bynum, Lou Pearl Alston, Ruby Farrington, Clementine Self

 Community members gather in song at a candlelight vigil after the “reunion dinner” of over 300 activists, neighbors, and friends that concluded the “Civil Rights in Chapel Hill” weekend celebration.

 CORE organizer, Quinton Baker, teaches effective nonviolence tactics to local activists and leads a practice protest march.

 Crowd gathers to prepare for a march in front of St. Joseph C.M.E. Church at the corner of Rosemary and Roberson.

 David Caldwell, Jr. - On his career, community, and the Rogers-Eubanks neighborhood

In the interview, Caldwell touches on the following points: his early family life on Rogers Road, which was underdeveloped and exploited; his experiences of discrimination and inequality at Phillips Middle School and Chapel Hill High; attending NCCU on a basketball scholarship; time in the air…

 Demonstrator arrested at Merchants Association sit-in

A demonstrator arrested at the Merchants Association sit-in is carried through the garage in the Chapel Hill jail building.

 Demonstrators arrested at Colonial Drug Sit-in

Demonstrators, including Walter Mitchell (center), are arrested during a night sit-in blocking the door to Colonial Drug.   Members of owner John Carswell’s family and a friend watch from the inside.

 Demonstrators congregate at St. Joseph CME Church before a march.

Demonstrators congregate at St. Joseph CME Church before a march.   Reinvigorated by the March on Washington, activist rallied across the country, including in Chapel Hill, where participants often number in the hundreds.

 Demonstrators march down Franklin Street in protest of public accommodations laws.

Several weeks after the Chapel Hill Board of Aldermen failed to pass a public accomodation ordinance, the Chapel Hill Freedom Movement retaliated with a series of sit-ins and marches. On February 8, 1964, demonstrations like this one on Franklin Street effectively disrupted the town.

 Do’s and Don’ts of Picketing by Ezra Weiss.

 Donny "Hollywood" Riggsbee - On his family, nickname, and experiences working

This interview provides insight into the background of Donny “Hollywood” Riggsbee, a long-term Northside neighborhood resident. He shares his experiences living with 12 siblings, the areas of NC in which he lived, and his family’s interactions with UNC students. Hollywood goes into depth about how…

 Esphur and Harold Foster - Harold Foster and Civil Rights

 Esphur and Harold Foster - On her mother, education, and impact of the Civil Rights Movement

Esphur Foster has lived on Cotton Street in Chapel Hill, North Carolina for 70 years.  In this interview, Foster discusses the powerful life of her mother, Hattie Mae Foster, as well as growing up in Chapel Hill during a pivotal time in history. She also describes much about life before, during, and…

 First-graders from Northside Elementary march from St. Joseph C.M.E. church to Northside school

First-graders from Northside Elementary march from St. Joseph C.M.E. church to Northside school as part of a collaborative curriculum with the Marian Cheek Jackson Center.

 Gloria Regester Jeter - On school integration and racial discrimination

This interview is part of an oral history project called Southern Communities: Listening for a Change: Mighty Tigers--Oral HIstories of Chapel Hill's Lincoln High School. The interviewes were conducted from 2000-2001, by Bob Gilgor, with former teachers, staff, and students from Chapel Hill, N.C.'s…

 Harold Foster and others pointing to a segregated restaurant

Harold Foster and other marchers with the Chapel Hill Freedom movement point to a segregated restaurant.

 Harold Foster rallies demonstrators at St. Joseph CME

Harold Foster rallies demonstrators in front of St. Joseph CME church before marching through Chapel Hill.

First row left to right:
Harold Foster, Anita Booth, Larry Foushee, Wilbert Jones, (unknown), (unknown child), Bernard Foushee, Maxene Mason

 Harold Foster, among those welcoming Dr. Martin Luther King during King’s visit to Roberson Street (Hargraves) Center in 1960.

 Isabel Atwater - On growing up during World War II, Black businesses, and Civil Rights

Ms. Atwater speaks about life growing up in the Chapel Hill-Carrboro area during World War II. She shares her experiences with her husband, Roy Atwater and her education at the rural Merritt School and Orange County Training School. She was familiar with food rations throughout the time and had…

 James "Jim" Wallace - Speaking about the Civil Rights Movement and his photography

In this interview, Wallace speaks about Civil rights in Chapel Hill, resistance within the movement, and differences of thought. He also talks about Karen Parker, the first black Woman to graduate from UNC. The interview also includes discussion of Jim Wallace’s photos, photos used in schools to…

 James Foushee - On the Civil Rights Movement, family, and Northside

Foushee speaks on growing up in Northside which includes his educational experiences, and his family overview. He goes into the dynamics of his relationship with his aunt. Furthermore, he talks about his relationship with his neighbor. He takes the listener through the beginning and organization of…

 Janie Alston - On her childhood, civil rights, and the Hargraves family

The interview includes the history of the Hargraves family: her great-grandfather, Jerry Hargraves had a role in the founding of St. Paul's. Nineteen children were born to her grandparents, Della Weaver and Luther Hargraves, the first black mortician in the area. He also built houses in Northside.…

 Joseph Fearrington and Clementine Self - On home, community, World War II, and Civil Rights

The interview was conducted on the porch of Joe’s home, a wonderful venue for an interview about home and community, although maybe not ideal for sound quality. There was significant wind at times and the sound of the cars passing by on the street. The interview begins with Joe’s stories of how he…

 Keith Edwards - On Carrboro, gentrification, and white students' involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Edwards discusses her life in Carrboro and how she felt safe within the Black community but unsafe within the city of Carrboro as a whole. She recounts incidents of violence, Ku Klux Klan activity and police intimidation in the 1930s and 1950s. She moved to Chapel Hill to be provided a different,…

 Keith Edwards - On housing and gentrification in Northside

Keith Edwards has lived at the same address on McDade St. in Northside since she was born but now resides in a different house, built with support from a development grant that Chapel Hill received in the early 1970s. She became the first black female police officer at UNC in 1974 and later won a…

 Keith Edwards - On the future of Northside and the impact of the Jackson Center

Keith Edwards discusses the impact the Jackson Center and student organizations on the Northside community as well as the challenges posed by ongoing gentrification of the neighborhood brought about by the conversion of single family homes into high occupancy student accommodation. Edwards expresses…

 Lifetime resident and community scholar, Kathy Atwater, speaks at the culminating dinner of the Civil Rights in Chapel Hill weekend celebration, 2012.  

 March leaders at St. Joseph CME Church

March leaders address participants in front of St. Joseph CME Church, a renowned headquarters for action and santuary for leaders.From left to right, standing on the steps of St. Joseph’s is: Charlie Foushee, John Fykes, Clementine Self, Carl Watson, Terry Cobb, and Thomas Bynum. Hilliard Caldwell’s…

 Marchers on Franklin Street protest at segregated Colonial Drug

Marchers on Franklin Street protest at segregated Colonial Drug.

 Marchers sing freedom songs to convey their message, elevate their spirits, and boost their collective courage.

The man with his head turned to the side is Calvin Farrington. Carol Brown is standing on the left clapping, wearing a light colored collared top. Next to her is Emma Gene Davis, wearing a printed dress. Maxine Mason is on the far right.

 Marchers walk in freezing rain from Durham to Chapel Hill on January 12, 1964

Marchers walk in freezing rain from Durham to Chapel Hill on January 12, 1964, in support of a pending local public accommodations ordinance.

 On February 8, 1964, protesters block the drive to UNC’s Woolen Gym during a Wake Forest game.

On February 8, 1964, protesters block the drive to UNC’s Woolen Gym during a Wake Forest game. Arthur Beaumont, Chief of UNC campus police is on the left.

 Picket of Chi Omega sorority at Pines Restaurant

When Chi Omega sorority at the ATO fraternity held banquets at the segregated Pines Restaurant, they were picketed by their fellow students.

 Protester carried by Chapel Hill police officers

Protester carried by Chapel Hill police officers.

 Protesters march and sing in front of the post office on Franklin Street.

In the front row are (from L-R) Carol Purefoy, Evelyn Walker, Patricia Atwater, and Charlie Foushee.

 Renowned, national activist, James Farmer, speaks at a civil rights gathering at First Baptist Church in Chapel Hill, NC.

Renowned, national activist, James Farmer, speaks at a civil rights gathering at First Baptist Church in Chapel Hill, NC.   Rev. J. R. Manley, pastor at First Baptist for sixty-six years, sits in the background.

 Ruby Farrington (right) and Arthur B. Simons (left) lead a sit-in that paralyzes Franklin Street on February 8, 1964.

Ruby Farrington (right) and Arthur B. Simons (left) lead a sit-in that paralyzes Franklin Street on February 8, 1964.   Ruby and Arthur moved together to Boston, where they were married in 1965; (marriage was still illegal in NC at the time).

 Russell Edwards - Civil Rights

 Russell Edwards - On his family, faith, health, and upbringing

 Russell Edwards - On Northside, the Civil Rights Movement, and desegregation

Russell Edwards grew up in Chapel Hill and has watched, as well as experienced, many situations that African-Americans dealt with both before, during, and after the Civil Rights Movement took place. He resides in one of the historic African American communities of Chapel Hill and shares his opinions…

 Shirley Davis - On her family history and the Civil Rights Movement

In this interview, Shirley Davis speaks about her family history. She grew up in Chapel Hill on Merritt Mill Road. Her father worked thirty years for the Sigma Chi Sorority and her mother worked for Milton Julian. Her grandmother worked at University laundry, and her grandfather worked with the…

 Sit-in at Carlton's Rock Pile

Protesters sit-in Carlton’s Rock Pile, a whites-only convenience store.   At another sit-in there on December 1, 1963, the owner doused a protester with ammonia.

 Ted Stone - On his childhood, values, and school integration

This interview is part of an oral history project called Southern Communities: Listening for a Change: Mighty Tigers--Oral HIstories of Chapel Hill's Lincoln High School. The interviewes were conducted from 2000-2001, by Bob Gilgor, with former teachers, staff, and students from Chapel Hill, N.C.'s…

 Thomas Bell - On growing up in Northside, involvement with the community, and the Civil Rights Movement

Thomas Bell, a long time Northside community member and employee at Hillsborough Prison, attended Lincoln High School immediately before the desegregation of Chapel Hill public schools. He reflects on growing up in the Northside (walking to high school football games in Carborro, playing at…

 William Carter - On school integration and the Civil Rights Movement

William Carter discusses the movement and his background. He was born in the Bronx, New York in 1949 and discusses his heritage with a grandma being a Lumbee Native American and father being an African American. Carter moved back to North Carolina because his aunt was in poor health and he discusses…

 Young student marchers point accusingly at segregated businesses in Chapel Hill.

Young student marchers, both black and white, point accusingly at segregated businesses in Chapel Hill.